Thursday, February 7, 2013

TYPES OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION





TYPES OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION
Type of Abortion
Bleeding
Pain
Cervical Dilation
Tissue Passage

Threatened

Slight


Mild cramping

No

No
Inevitable

Moderate

Moderate cramping

Yes
No
Incomplete

Heavy
Severe cramping

Yes
Yes
Complete

Decreased; slight

Mild cramping

No
Yes
Missed
None; slight
None
No
No




Sunday, February 3, 2013

DISORDERS OF CRANIAL NERVES




DISORDERS OF CRANIAL NERVES
Disorder Nursing
Clinical Manifestations
Interventions
Olfactory Nerve—I
Head trauma
 Intracranial tumor
Intracranial surgery
Unilateral or bilateral anosmia (temporary or persistent) Diminished taste for food
Assess sense of smell.
Assess for cerebrospinal uid rhinorrhea if
patient has sustained head trauma.

Optic Nerve—II
Optic neuritis
Increased intracranial pressure
Pituitary tumor
Lesions of optic tract producing homonymous hemianopsia
Assess visual acuity.
Restructure environment to prevent injuries.
Teach patient to accommodate for visual loss.
Oculomotor Nerve—III
Trochlear Nerve—IV
Abducens Nerve—VI
Vascular
Brain stem ischemia
Hemorrhage and infarction
Neoplasm
Trauma
Infection



Dilation of pupil with loss of light reex on one side Impairment of ocular movement
Diplopia
Gaze palsies
Ptosis of eyelid




Assess extraocular movement and for
nonreactive pupil.

Trigeminal Nerve—V
Trigeminal neuralgia
Head trauma
Cerebellopontine lesion
Sinus tract tumor and metastatic disease Compression of trigeminal root by tumor

Pain in face
Diminished or loss of corneal reex Chewing dysfunction

Assess for pain and triggering mechanisms for
pain.
Assess for difculty in chewing.
Discuss trigger zones and pain precipitants with
patient.
Protect cornea from abrasion.
Ensure good oral hygiene.
Educate patient about medication regimen.
Facial Nerve—VII
Bell’s palsy
Facial nerve tumor
Intracranial lesion
Herpes zoster

Facial dysfunction; weakness and paralysis
Hemifacial spasm
Diminished or absent taste Pain

Recognize facial paralysis as emergency; refer
for treatment as soon as possible.
Teach protective care for eyes.
Select easily chewed foods; patient should eat
and drink from unaffected side of mouth.
Emphasize importance of oral hygiene.
Provide emotional support for changed
appearance of face.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve—VIII
Tumors and acoustic neuroma
Vascular compression of nerve
Ménière’s syndrome

Tinnitus
Vertigo
Hearing difculties

Assess pattern of vertigo.
Provide for safety measures to prevent falls.
Ensure that patient can maintain balance
before ambulating.
Caution patient to change positions slowlyAssist with ambulation.
Encourage use of assistive devices.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve—IX
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia from
neurovascular compression of cranial nerves IX and X
Trauma
Inammatory conditions
Tumor
Vertebral artery aneurysms

Pain at base of tongue
Difculty in swallowing
Loss of gag reex
Palatal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal paralysis

Assess for paroxysmal pain in throat, decreased
or absent swallowing, and gag and cough
reexes.
Monitor for dysphagia, aspiration, and nasal
dysarthric speech.
Position patient upright for eating or tube
feeding.

Vagus Nerve—X
Spastic palsy of larynx; bulbar paralysis; high
vagal paralysis
Guillain-Barré syndrome
Vagal body tumors
Nerve paralysis from malignancy, surgical
trauma such as carotid endarterectomy


Voice changes (temporary or permanent  hoarseness)
Vocal paralysis
Dysphagia

Assess for airway obstruction/provide airway
management.
Prevent aspiration.
Support patient having voice reconstruction
procedures.

Spinal Accessory Nerve—XI
Spinal cord disorder
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Trauma
Guillain-Barré syndrome

Drooping of affected shoulder with limited shoulder movement
Weakness or paralysis of head rotation, exion,
extension; shoulder elevation


Support patient undergoing diagnostic tests.

Hypoglossal Nerve—XII
Medullary lesions
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Polio and motor system disease, which may
destroy hypoglossal nuclei
Multiple sclerosis
Trauma

Abnormal movements of tongue Weakness or paralysis of tongue muscles Difculty in talking, chewing, and swallowing

Observe swallowing ability.
Observe speech pattern.
Be aware of swallowing or vocal difculties.
Prepare for alternate feeding methods (tube
feeding) to maintain nutrition.

Source:Brunner and Suddharth’s Med-Surgical Nursing 12th Edition p.1971

Saturday, February 2, 2013

December 2012 Nurse Licensure Examination results released in thirty (30) working days


The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) announces that 16,908 out of 49,066 passed the Nurse Licensure Examination given by the Board of Nursing in the cities of Manila, Baguio, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Dagupan, Davao, Iloilo, Laoag, Legazpi, Lucena, Nueva Ecija, Pagadian, Pampanga, Tacloban, Tuguegarao and Zamboanga last December 2012.
The members of the Board of Nursing are Carmencita M. Abaquin, Chairman; Leonila A. Faire, Betty F. Merritt, Perla G. Po, Marco Antonio C. Sto.Tomas, Yolanda C. Arugay and Amelia B. Rosales, Members.
Pursuant to Section 16, of Republic Act No. 9173, “all successful candidates in the examination shall be required to take an oath of professional before the Board or any government official authorized to administer oaths prior to entering upon the nursing practice”.
Registration for new nurses shall require the following: duly accomplished Oath Form or Panunumpa ng Propesyonal, current Community Tax Certificate (cedula), 2 pieces passport size picture (colored with white background and complete name tag), 1 piece 1” x 1” picture (colored with white background and complete name tag), 2 sets of metered documentary stamps and 1 short brown envelope with name and profession and to pay the Initial Registration Fee of P600 and Annual Registration Fee of P450 for 2013-2016. Successful examinees should personally register and sign in the Roster of Registered Professionals.

Source:prc.gov.ph

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

December 2012 Nursing Board Examination Topnotchers


December 2012 Nursing Board Examination Top Ten Performing Schools

RANK
SCHOOL
TOTAL NO.
OF EXAM.
TOTAL NO.
PASSED
PERCENTAGE
PASSED
1

SAINT PAUL UNIVERSITY-TUGUEGARAO
138
137
99.28 %
2

XAVIER UNIVERSITY
193
189
97.93 %
3

PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA
110
105
95.45 %
4

SAINT PAUL UNIVERSITY-ILOILO
76
72
94.74 %
5

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT LOUISTUGUEGARAO
73
69
94.52 %
6

REMEDIOS T. ROMUALDEZ MEDICAL FOUNDATION
164
155
94.51 %
7

SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY
60
56
93.33 %
8

SAN PEDRO COLLEGE-DAVAO CITY
529
473
89.41 %
9

SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITYLUCBAN
(SLPC)
158
140
88.61 %
10

SAINT MARY’S UNIVERSITY
211
186
88.15 %


Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Friday, January 18, 2013

PHYSICAL INDICATORS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

PHYSICAL INDICATORS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

Indicator
Signs of Good Nutrition
Signs of Poor Nutrition

General appearance

Alert, responsive

Listless, appears acutely or chronically ill

Hair

Shiny, lustrous; rm, healthy scalp

Dull and dry, brittle, depigmented, easily plucked; thin and
sparse
Face

Skin color uniform; healthy appearance
Skin dark over cheeks and under eyes, skin aky, face swollen
or hollow/sunken cheeks
Eyes

Bright, clear, moist

Eye membranes pale, dry (xerophthalmia); increased
vascularity, cornea soft (keratomalacia)
Lips

Good color (pink), smooth

Swollen and puffy; angular lesion at corners of mouth
(cheilosis)
Tongue

Deep red in appearance; surface papillae present
Smooth appearance, swollen, beefy-red, sores, atrophic
papillae


Teeth



Straight, no crowding, no dental caries, bright

Dental caries, mottled appearance (uorosis), malpositioned

Gums

Firm, good color (pink)

Spongy, bleed easily, marginal redness, recession

Thyroid
No enlargement of the thyroid
Thyroid enlargement (simple goiter)

Skin

Smooth, good color, moist

Rough, dry, aky, swollen, pale, pigmented; lack of fat under
skin

Nails
Firm, pink
Spoon-shaped, ridged, brittle

Skeleton
Good posture, no malformation
Poor posture, beading of ribs, bowed legs or knock knees

Muscles
Well developed, rm
Flaccid, poor tone, wasted, underdeveloped

Extremities
No tenderness
Weak and tender; edematous

Abdomen
Flat
Swollen

Nervous system
Normal reexes
Decreased or absent ankle and knee reexes

Weight
Normal for height, age, and body build
Overweight or underweight


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